ASTR 1040-010 Accelerated Intro Astronomy 2: Stars & Galaxies (Toomre) Spring 2014
Recitation Notes and Schedule (Orvedahl)
Primary Text: Cosmic Perspective, 7th edition, Bennett et al. (2013),
COPIES OF LECTURE SLIDES ARE POSTED AFTER EACH LECTURE (click on underlined links
that get you to Acrobat-readable pdf files)
Lecture 1: No Slides For This Lecture (Mon/Wed, Jan 13/15)
- Introduction to topics to be covered
- Challenge of vast range of scales, in space and time
- Review importance of units and formulae
- Review basic math skills such as scientific notation
Lecture 2: No Slides For This Lecture (Mon/Wed, Jan 20/22)
- Fermi Problems: estimation and order of magnitude problems
- Dimensional Analysis: how it can get you pretty close to the answer
- Introduction to telescopes
- Diffraction of waves and the diffraction limit
- Very Long Baseline Interferometry and its uses
- Introduction to standard model
- 4 Fundamental forces
- Different particles and their properties
- Role of each force
- What does it take to build a stellar model
- Derive the set of equations that governs stellar structure
- A few research examples of solving the equations
- Introduction to special relativity
- Time dilation, length contraction
- Introduction to general relativity
- 4D Space-Time and Curvature
- Review special and general relativity topics
- Go deeper into space-time and curvature
- Non-rotating, empty space black holes
- Calculate special and general relativity corrections to satellites
- What does it take to collapse a cloud of gas and dust?
- Derive Jeans Mass and Jeans Length
- Group project: calculate velocity of gas cloud
- Group project: calculate mass of gas cloud
- Simple quantum mechanics: uncertainty and exclusion principles
- Degeneracy pressure, non-relativistic and relativistic
- Mass-Radius relationships
- Group project: convert dyn/cm^2 to SI unit of Pascal
- Supernovae classification
- Nucleosynthesis: how to make elements larger than Iron
- Mass transfer and Roche Lobes
- Lagrangian points: what causes them, where are they?
- Algol paradox and its resolution
- How do supernovae and classical novae blow up?
- Review aspects of special relativity
- Where does the time dilation formula come from?
- Group Project I: What are the velocity addition formulas?
- Group Project II: How much doppler beaming takes place?
- What makes general relativity so messy?
- Brief review of density wave theory
- What are standard candles and the magnitude system?
- Distances: Parallax, main sequence fitting, Cepheid variables
- Distances: Tully-Fisher, Type Ia Supernovae
- Here is the density wave animation with 3 orbits:
Density Waves (3 orbits)
- Here is the density wave animation with 20 orbits:
Density Waves (20 orbits)
- Here is the parallax animation:
- Briefly discuss expanding universe and Cosmological redshift
- History of Quasar discovery
- How to estimate the mass of the Quasar?
- How to estimate the size of the Quasar?
- What causes the jets?
- The jets are ... superluminal?
- Reminder of a few General Relativity topics
- What is the Hubble constant?
- What are the density parameters of modern Cosmology?
- Different epochs in the history of the universe
- Big Bang nucleosynthesis
- Fundamental forces and when they first appeared
- Different eras of the universe and their properties
- Cosmic Microwave Background and why it appears
- Inflation and what it solves
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